Clive had his surgery on February 8, 2011. He recovered very quickly and has taken over the house! You can read his progress reports below, and you can also look for Clive's Story on Facebook where you will find more recent updates and photos of Clive!

Persistent Right Aortic Arch

Persistent Right Aortic Arch (PRAA) is rare in kittens. It is more commonly seen in puppies, so some of the links below have information about the condition as it occurs in dogs, and these web sites show diagrams and photos to give you a better idea of what is going on with Clive. The pathophysiology and treatment are basically the same for cats.

Some of the web sites below have pictures of actual surgeries and/or postmortem photos so if you are upset by things like that, view with caution.

First the articles about cats with PRAA:
PRAA in Cats (4 cats with PRAA)
PRAA in Kittens (short, not much info)
PRAA in a Cat (surgery video)
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Persistent right aortic arch and associated axial skeletal malformations in cats)
The Canadian Veterinary Journal (Thorascopic correction of a congenital persistent right aortic arch in a young cat. This article is in English & French; For the English version, scroll down past the French Resume)

The web sites below are about dogs, but give information about PRAA:
Vet Surgery Central (an explanation of PRAA written by a board-certified veterinary surgeon)
The University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine (caution: graphic photos)
What is Persistent Right Aortic Arch.
Embryonic Development of PRAA
Veterinary Pathology Forum (caution: graphic photos)
Pet Education.Com
Pet Health Center
Persistent Right Aortic Arch and Its Surgical Correction in a Dog (in this one you can see the dog eating in a vertical position to help the food go down properly)
Veterinary Surgical Specialist, California (sad outcome prior to surgery for PRAA but important information)

Megaesophagus (this is what happens to the esophagus when a kitten or puppy has PRAA, and this web page gives a clear explanation of what megaesophagus is and why regurgitation occurs)

Related Aortic Arch Abnormalities:
Double Aortic Arch in a Siamese Cat

PRAA has also been diagnosed in other mammals including cougar, llama, Pere David's deer, Northern elephant seal, horse & foals, wood bison, Bengal tiger, cows...

Aortic arch abnormalities also occur as congenital defects in human babies:
Heart Defects